Chapter 2 Multiple Choice

 

  1. An igneous rock that contains vesicles __________.

a. is also extrusive

            b. is also fine grained

c. contains many small holes

            d. all of the above

 

  2. As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form __________.

a. increases                                          

b. decreases                                         

c. is not affected                      

d. none of these

 

  3.  Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

a. limestone                  

b. rhyolite                                                         

c. slate                                                                                     

d. shale

 

  4.  Intrusive rocks __________.

a. are generally fine-grained                                          

b. form at Earth’s surface

c. are quite often vesicular                                                        

d. none of the above

 

  5.  Granite and gabbro __________.

a. have a similar mineral composition                 

b. have a similar texture

c. both a and b                                                                                     

d. are in no way similar

 

6.  Obsidian exhibits a(n) __________ texture.

a. fine-grained                          

b. glassy                                              

c. coarse-grained                      

d. porphyritic

 

7.   Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit a __________ texture.

a. fine-grained                          

b. glassy                                              

c. coarse-grained                      

d. porphyritic

 

  8. This igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes.

a. fine-grained                          

b. glassy                                              

c. coarse-grained                      

d. porphyritic

 

  9.  Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of this igneous rock.

a. basalt                                               

b. andesite                                           

c. granite                                             

d. diorite

 

10.  Select the coarse-grained rock which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar from the list below.

a. basalt                                               

b. andesite                                           

c. granite                                             

d. diorite

 

11.  This rock gets its name from a chain of mountains located in South America.

a. basalt                                               

b. andesite                                           

c. granite                                             

d. diorite

 

12.  Which of the rocks listed below is a popular building stone?

a. basalt                                               

b. andesite                                           

c. granite                                             

d. diorite

 

13.  The texture of an igneous rock __________.

a. is controlled by the composition of magma

b. determines the color of the rock

c. is caused by leaching

d. records the rock’s cooling history

 

14.  Igneous rock is formed

a. by the weathering of pre-existing rocks

b. by changes in mineral composition

c. at great depth within Earth

d. by crystallization of molten rock

 

15.  The most important mechanical weathering process is __________.

a. frost action                                                   

b. hydrolysis

c. unloading                                                      

d. thermal expansion

 

16.  What chemical weathering environment would be most effective __________.

a. in a warm, dry climate                                   

b. in a cold, dry climate

c. in a warm, humid climate                               

d. equally in any kind of climate

 

17.  Which of the following is NOT a product of the chemical weathering of potassium feldspar?

a. silica                                                

b. potassium ions                                  

c. iron oxide                 

d. clay

 

18.  Which one of the following is NOT true about mechanical weathering?

a. produces smaller pieces

b. adds to the effectiveness of chemical weathering

c. does not change the rock's mineral composition

d. does not affect metamorphic rocks

 

19.  Which one of the following is NOT related to chemical weathering?

a. decomposition                       

b. frost wedging                                               

c. hydrolysis                 

d. oxidation

 

20.  Which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering?

a. mineral content                     

b. climate                                                         

c. topography               

d. all of these

 

21.  Sedimentary rocks __________.

a. may contain fossils

b. hold important clues to Earth’s history

c. may be economically important

d. all of the above

 

22.  Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) primarily on the basis of __________.

a. color                                                

b. type of bedding                     

c. composition                          

d. particle size

 

23.  Sedimentary rocks compose approximately _______ percent of Earth's outermost 10 miles.

a. 5%                                                  

b. 15%                                                 

c. 30%                                                 

d. 50%

 

24.  Which rock type is associated with a high- energy environment (such as a very turbulent stream)?

a. conglomerate                        

b. shale                                                

c. chert                                                

d. none of these

 

25.  Which pair of minerals is most common in detrital sedimentary rocks?

a. quartz and olivine                                                      

b. calcite and clay

c. clay and quartz                                                         

d. dolomite and gypsum

 

26.  Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except __________.

a. swamp                                             

b. salt flat                                             

c. river floodplain                      

d. delta

 

27.  Compaction would probably be most significant as a lithification process for __________.

a. shale                                                

b. sandstone                             

c. conglomerate                        

d. breccia

 

28.  The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is __________.

a. limestone                                          

b. dolomite                                           

c. chert                                               

d. rock salt

 

29.  Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and rock salt?

a. detrital sedimentary rocks                                                                  

b. varieties of dolostone

c. varieties of coal and peat                                                                   

d. evaporites; chemical, sedimentary rocks

 

30.  Coal beds originate in ____________.

a. shallow lakes in a dry, desert region                           

b. channels of fast-moving streams

c. deep, marine basins below wave action                      

d. freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

 

31.  Metamorphism may result from __________.

a. heat                                                 

b. pressure                                           

c. chemical action                     

d. all of these

 

32.  ____________ is a strong, parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.

a. Rock cleavage                                  

b. Foliation                                           

c. Stress streaking                    

d. Marbleizing

 

33.  Which of the following changes may occur during metamorphism?

a. certain minerals may recrystallize

b. the rock becomes more compact

c. crystals may grow larger

d. all of the above

 

34.  The common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is __________.

a. marble                                             

b. mica schist                           

c. phyllite                                             

d. gneiss

 

35.  __________ is composed of alternating bands of light and dark silicate minerals.

a. marble                                             

b. mica schist                           

c. phyllite                                             

d. gneiss

 

36.  This dense, nonfoliated metamorphic rock is produced most often from sandstone.

a. phyllite                                             

b. mica schist                           

c. quartzite                                           

d. marble

 

37.  The agents of metamorphism are __________.

a. uplifting and folding                                                   

b. foliation and deposition

c. contact and regional deformation                   

d. heat, pressure, and chemical fluids

 

38.  The primary agent of contact metamorphism is __________.

a. folding                                  

b. heat                                                 

c. stress                                                           

d. strain

 

39.  What type of metamorphic rock will shale normally become following low-grade metamorphism?

a. marble                                             

b. mica schist                           

c. slate                                                 

d. gneiss

 

40.  Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?

a. gneiss, slate, schist                                                                            

b. schist, slate, gneiss

c. slate, gneiss, schist                                                                            

d. slate, schist, gneiss

 

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

 

41.        a. shale                         b. sandstone                  c. breccia                      d. conglomerate

 

42.        a. lithification                 b. cementation               c. weathering                d. compaction

 

43.        a. pressure                    b. recrystallization          c. melting                      d. chemical fluids

 

44.        a. granite                      b. basalt                        c. diorite                       d. gabbro

 

45.        a. oxidation                   b. dissolution                 c. hydrolysis                  d. sheeting

 

Answers

  1. d

  2. b

  3. b

  4. d

  5. b

  6. b

  7. c

  8. d

  9. c

10. c

11. b

12. c

13. d

14. d

15. a

16. c

17. c

18. d

19. b

20. d

21. d

22. d

23. a

24. a

25. c

26. b

27. a

28. a

29. d

30. d

31. d

32. b

33. d

34. a

35. d

36. c

37. d

38. b

39. c

40. d

41. a

42. c

43. c

44. b

45. d