AGEN 2363                Chpt. 11 Notes: Vegetating drastically disturbed areas.


I. ‘Drastically disturbed’ areas.

    A. Definition of ‘drastically disturbed’ area:


            1. Three main characteristics: 1)



            2. Non-point pollution:


    B.  Examples of disturbed areas needing renovation:

            - road banks

            - lake shores, stream banks

            - eroded areas: fields, borders, ditches, gulleys

            - construction sites

            - logging

            - mining

            - others?


    C. Problems associated with disturbed areas:





    D. Cost benefits of revegetating disturbed areas as soon as possible:


    E. Current Legal issues:

            1. Governing agencies: Federal           - EPA

                                                                        - US Army Corps of Engineers

                                                                        - US Fish and Wildlife

                                                                        - USDA NRCS

                                                                        - EX.: 1977 Surface Mine Reclamation Act


            2. Governing agencies: State              - Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality

                                                                        - Arkansas Natural Resources Commission


            3. Miscellaneous county and city ordinances and regulations.


II. Renovation practices.

            1. Diversion waterways: lined, unlined.


            2. Silt screens


            3. Square hay bale dams


            4. Stock piling topsoil


            5. Use of annual grasses:         >non-competitor species

                                                            >’nurse’ and/or cover crop


            6. Perennial species:    > common bermudagrass

                                                > tall fescue

                                                > bahiagrass

                                                > sericea lespedeza     

                                                > weeping lovegrass

                                                > switch grass, Indian grass, bluestems, other natives


                        6a. Others:       > crimson clover

                                                > crown vetch

                                                > hairy vetch

                                                > white clover

            7. ‘Hydro-seeding’


            8. ‘Wattling’ terraces


            9. shrub establishment: bicolor lespedeza, privot, others


            10. Woven mats with or without seeds


            11. Woody cuttings along stream cuts, eroded pond banks


            12. Rip rap rocks


            13. Brush jettys


            14. Snow fences (wind erosion)


            15. Debris basin (construction and mine land sites)


III. Example questions:

1. Normally, how long does it take for perennial species to re-vegetate a disturbed area?


2. Why would annual ryegrass NOT make a good cover species in row crop areas?


3. Before re-seeding, what would be a good idea to aid in species selection and post-seeding



4. What are five steps to reclaiming a severe gulley?