Chapter 4: Heat, Temperature, and Atmospheric Circulation
1. Describe the relationship between the kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules composing a substance and temperature of that substance.
2. A traffic sign along an Arkansas highway warns motorists that a bridge freezes before the road surface. Why does the bridge surface freeze first?
3. What is meant by the response time of a thermometer? What type of thermometer has the fastest response time?
4. In northern climates in winter, how does the depth of the snow cover influence the depth to which the ground freezes?
5. Distinguish between sensible heating and latent heating of the atmosphere. Which is more important on a global annual average basis?
6. During which phase changes of water is latent heat released to the environment?
7. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the Celsius versus Fahrenheit temperature scales for weather observation and forecasting.
8. How and why would the temperature of an Arctic air mass change as the air mass moves from snow-covered ground to bare ground?
9. Describe the mechanisms involved in poleward heat transport within the Earth-atmosphere system.
10. Provide some examples of how Earth’s surface properties influence air temperature in the lower troposphere.