1. ____________ was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Paleozoic.
2. In the early part of the 20th century, ____________ argued forcefully for continental drift.
a. Karl Wagner
b. Peter Rommel
c. Alfred Wegener
d. Bill Kohl
3. The former, late Paleozoic super continent is known as ____________.
4. Today, ____________ is in about the same geographic position as during late Paleozoic time.
b. South America
5. Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere?
a. lithified loess (wind-blown) deposits in the deserts of Chile, Australia, and Africa
b. tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America
c. thick sediments in the Amazon and Congo deltas of South America and Africa
d. cold water fossils in the deep-water sediments of the South Atlantic abyssal plain
6. The ____________ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision?
a. Arabian Peninsula slamming into North Africa under the Red Sea
b. westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca plate
c. northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands
d. northward movement of India into Eurasia
7. Pull-apart, rift zones are generally associated with a ____________ plate boundary.
d. all plate boundaries
8. The temperature below which magnetic material can retain a permanent magnetization is called the ____________.
a. Darcy temperature
b. Vine temperature
c. Bullard point
d. Curie point
9. A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a ____________.
a. magma welt
b. basalt spout
c. melt well
d. hot spot
10. Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as ____________.
a. concentric circles about a rising plume of hot, mantle rocks and magma
b. reversed magnetizations along the rift valleys and normal magnetizations along the ridge
c. normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge
d. normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly perpendicular to the ridge axis
11. The ____________ is (are) a logical evolutionary analog of the African Rift Valleys ten million years from now.
a. Ural Mountains
b. San Andreas fault
c. Peru-Chile trench
d. Red Sea
12. A typical rate of seafloor spreading in the Atlantic Ocean is ____________.
a. 2 ft per year
b. 0.1 inches per year
c. 20 feet per year
d. 2 centimeters per year
13. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth’s lithospheric plates?
a. gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
b. electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core
c. export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
d. swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core
14. The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not __________.
a. find geologic similarities on different continents
b. disprove competing theories that were more accepted by scientists
c. identify a mechanism capable of moving continents
d. all of the above
15. All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for __________.
a. changes in the Moon’s orbit due to shifting plates
b. ocean floor drilling
c. hot spots
16. ____________ was never proposed as evidence supporting the existence of Pangaea.
a. Geometrical fit between South America and Africa
b. Islands of Precambrian rocks along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
c. Late Paleozoic glacial features
d. Similar fossils on different continents
17. Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?
a. stratovolcanoes associated with subduction and a convergent plate boundary
b. shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate
c. shield volcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific ridge and spreading center
d. stratovolcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific transform fault
18. Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere?
a. zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage
b. cool, rigid layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates
c. deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting
d. partial melting of rising granitic plumes produces huge volumes of basaltic magma
19. New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ____________.
a. divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma
b. convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma
c. divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma
d. convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma
20. Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at ____________.
a. subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries
b. transform fault zones along divergent plate boundaries
c. rift zones along mid-ocean ridges
d. sites of long-lived, hot spot volcanism in the ocean basins
21. Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for ____________.
a. rifting beneath a continental plate and the beginning of continental drift
b. sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone
c. rising of hot asthenosphere from deep in the mantle
d. transform faulting between an oceanic plate and a continental plate
22. A transform plate boundary is characterized by ____________.
a. stratovolcanoes on the edge of a plate and shield volcanoes on the adjacent plate
b. two, converging, oceanic plates meeting head-on and piling up into a mid-ocean ridge
c. a divergent boundary where the continental plate changes to an oceanic plate
d. a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
23. Which one of the following is an important fundamental assumption underlying the plate tectonic theory?
a. Earth’s magnetic field originates in the outer mantle
b. Earth’s diameter has been essentially constant over time
c. radioactive decay slows down at the extreme pressures of the inner core
d. Earth’s ocean basins are very old and stable features
24. The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ____________.
a. a tiny remnant of a once immense ocean that was closed as Africa moved Asia
b. the site of a transform fault along which Arabia is moving away from Africa
c. a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate
d. a rare example of a two continent subduction zone where the African continental plate is sinking under the Arabian continental plate
25. Mount St. Helens and the other Cascade volcanoes are____________.
a. young, active stratovolcanoes built on a continental margin above a sinking slab of oceanic lithosphere
b. a row of young, active, shield volcanoes built as western North America moved over a hot spot deep in the mantle
c. old, deeply eroded stratovolcanoes built before the Pacific Ocean existed
d. old, deeply eroded, basaltic shield volcanoes built when western North America was over the present-day site of the Hawaiian hot spot
26. The volcanoes and deep valleys of east Africa are related to a ____________.
a. continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate
b. fault allowing Arabia to slip westward past east Africa and penetrate into Turkey
c. transform fault aligned with the Red Sea carrying the Arabian and African blocks in opposite directions
d. continental collision zone between Africa and the Zagros Mountains along the southern margin of Eurasia
27. The Aleutian Islands occur at a ____________.
a. convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate
b. transform boundary where North America has moved towards Alaska
c. divergent boundary where shield volcanoes are forming
d. convergent, continental margin with uplifted fault blocks, much like those of the Basin and Range Province
28. ____________ most effectively outline the edges of the lithospheric plates.
a. Lines of active stratovolcanoes
b. Margins of the continental shelves
c. The locations of deep mantle hot spots
d. Lines of earthquake epicenters
29. Deep-oceanic trenches are most abundant around the rim of the ____________ ocean basin.
30. Where would you drill to recover samples of the oldest basalts of the oceanic crust, which are 180 million years in age?
a. crest of the East Pacific, mid-ocean ridge
b. just offshore from the east coast of the United States
c. just offshore from the Hawaiian Islands
d. Mid-Atlantic Ridge under Iceland
31. ____________ first related the symmetrical magnetic patterns in seafloor basalts to seafloor spreading at a mid-ocean ridge.
a. Evans and Novak
b. Vine and Matthews
c. Matthews and Marks
d. Wegener and Wilson
32. Early results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project clearly justified the conclusion that ____________.
a. the oceans have not always contained most of Earth’s water
b. the ocean basins are relatively young; most ocean basin rocks and sediments are 180 million years or younger in age
c. Proterozoic rocks are found only as seamounts in the deepest parts of the ocean basins
d. the youngest sediments were deposited directly on the oldest seafloor basalts
Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.
33. a. fossil evidence b. fit of the continents c. paleomagnetism d. paleoclimates
34. a. Curie point b. paleomagnetism c. magnetic poles d. polar wandering
35. a. oceanic ridge b. seafloor spreading c. arc volcanoes d. divergent
36. a. Hawaii b. island arc c. volcanic arc d. subduction