Multiple Choice


  1. A name commonly used as a synonym for the Ice Age is __________.

a. Pennsylvanian period

b. Miocene epoch

c. Mesozoic era                                                                        

d. Pleistocene epoch


  2. ____________ is one of the two, major flow mechanism in a glacier.

            a. Basal slip

            b. Crevassal slip           

            c. Frost heaving            

            d. Morainal sliding


  3. Where is the world’s largest ice sheet located today?

            a. Greenland                

            b. Russia, Siberia          

            c. Iceland                     

            d. Antarctica


  4. Which one of the following is NOT true of glaciers?

a. originate on land                                           

b. exist only in the Northern Hemisphere

c. show evidence of past or present flow                       

d. form from the recrystallization of snow


  5. Which one of the moraines listed below is NOT characteristic of continental glaciation?

a. lateral moraine                                                                                  

b. terminal moraine

c. ground moraine                                                                                 

d. recessional moraine


6.   The bottom or downward tip of a crevasse marks the ____________.

            a. boundary between parts of the glacier moving by basal sliding and crevassal slip

b. boundary between the basal sliding and external flowage zones

            c. bottom of the basal sliding zone

            d. top of the internal deformation and flowage zone


7.   A ____________ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.

            a. U                             

            b. Y                             

            c. V                             

            d. S


  8. A fiord is a __________.

a. lake in a cirque                                                                                 

b. valley before it was glaciated

c drowned glacial trough                                                           

d. period of the Ice Age


  9. Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?

            a. wastage exceeds accumulation                      

            b. accumulation exceeds wastage

            c. accumulation and wastage are about equal     

            d. none of the above


10.  Drumlins are __________.

a. composed of outwash                                                                                   

b. ridges formed on top of a glacier

c. formed in the zone of fracture                                                           

d. not found singly, but in clusters


11.  Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier?

            a. the internal, flowage zone                              

            b. the snout zone

            c. the surface, brittle zone                                 

            d. the basal, sliding zone


12.  During the most recent ice age, glaciers covered about _______ percent of Earth's land area.

a. 3                                                                  

b. 10                                                    

c. 30                                                    

d. 50


13.  ____________ are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers.

            a. Moraines                  

            b. Cirques                    

            c. Eskers                     

            d. Drumlins


14.  The term "drift" __________.

a. refers only to alpine glaciers                                      

b. refers only to moraines

c. is synonymous with the term "till"                               

d. means any sediments of glacial origin


15.  Ice Age glaciers had many indirect effects. Which one of the following was NOT such an effect?

a. formation of mountains                                                          

b. extinction of some organisms

c. changes in some river courses                                               

d. sea level fluctuations


16.  A(n) ____________ represents a former meltwater channel or tunnel in glacial ice that was filled with sand and gravel.

            a. esker                       

            b. yazoo ridge               

            c. valley plain               

            d. kettle


17.  A(n) ____________ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today.

            a. outwash plain           

            b. hanging valley           

            c. striated drumlin         

            d. horn peak


18.  Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?

            a. kaming                     

            b. calving                     

            c. surging                     

            d. drowning


19.  A _______ forms when a block of ice is buried in drift and subsequently melts creating a pit.

a. tarn                                                  

b. paternoster                           

c. kame                                                           

d. kettle


20.  A ____________ is an erosional feature specifically produced by alpine glaciation.

            a. lateral moraine          

            b. drumlin                     

            c. crevasse spur           

            d. U-shaped valley


21.  Which one of the following could not have significantly affected climatic variations and advances and retreats of ice sheets during the Pleistocene epoch?

            a. movements of Earth’s tectonic plates             

            b. variations in the Sun’s energy output

            c. precession of Earth’s orbit                             

            d. wobbling of Earth’s rotational axis


22.  ____________ is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier.

            a. Terminal moraine      

            b. Outwash blanket       

            c. Kame sheet              

            d. Ground moraine


23.  A broad accumulation of stratified drift deposited adjacent to the downstream edge of an end moraine is a __________.

a. kame terrace                        
      b. esker                                                           
      c. outwash plain                             
      d. ground moraine


24.  Which one of the following statements is true?

            a. desert landscapes are monotonous, relatively flat areas covered to various depths with sand

            b. deserts and dry lands are concentrated in areas of ascending air masses and relatively low atmospheric pressures

            c. despite infrequent rainfalls, erosional and depositional features of running water are important in desert landscapes

            d. rainshadow deserts occur where air masses descend after first having risen to cross a mountain range


25.  A ____________ is an intermittent stream channel in the dry land areas of the western United States.

            a. rivulet                      

            b. playa                        

            c. rill                            

            d. wash


26.  Desert pavement is the result of __________.

a. deflation                                                                                                      

b. abrasion by windblown sand

c. erosion by running water                                                      

d. intense chemical weathering


27.  The loess deposited in many parts of the Midwest __________.

a. was once glacial outwash deposits                 

b. is in the form of transverse dunes

c. is uniformly thick                                                                  

d. had its source in desert regions


28.  Desert and steppe lands cover about what percentage of Earth’s land area?

            a. 10%                         

            b. 66%                         

            c. 30%                         

            d. 3%


29.  What mature, desert landscape feature consists of coalesced alluvial fans?

            a. balda                        

            b. bajada                      

            c. bahia                        

            d. baja


30.  Inselbergs are ____________.

            a. insulated icebergs floating in a hot spring

            b. blowouts cut from bedrock in mountainous areas

            c. lithified rock formed by cementation of wind-deposited, dune sands

            d. bedrock hills in a highly eroded desert landscape




1. d

2. a

3. d

4. b

5. a

6. d

7. a

8. c

9. b

10. d

11. d

12. c

13. b

14. d

15. b

16. a

17. b

18. b

19. d

20. d

21. a

22. d

23. c

24. c

25. d

26. a

27. a

28. c

29. b

30. d