1. The transfer of rock material down slope under the influence of gravity is termed __________.

a. weathering                                 

b. erosion                                       

c. mass wasting                              

d. exfoliation


  2. Which of the following terms is used to describe the way materials move during a mass wasting event?

a. fall                                                         

      b. slide                                                       

c. flow                                                       

      d. all of these


  3. The controlling force of mass wasting is __________.

      a. water                             

      b. gravity                                       

      c. composition                                

      d. earthquakes


  4. The release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants is called __________.

a. evaporation                                

b. degassing                                   

c. transpiration                               

d. infiltration


  5. ____________ is not part of the water cycle?

a. Water evaporating from a lake

b. Water infiltrating into the soil and bedrock

c. Calcium carbonate dissolving in soil water and


d. Water moving into creeks and streams following a



6.   Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient?

a. the distance traveled by water in a channel times a

    drop in elevation

b. the drop in elevation of a stream divided by the

    distance the water travels

c. the water pressure at the bottom of the stream

    divided by the streamís width

d. the increase in discharge of a stream per unit drop

    in elevation


7.   Which one of the following factors does NOT influence stream velocity?

      a. channel size and shape                                  

      b. laminar flow

      c. discharge                                               

      d. gradient

  8. The world's largest river in terms of discharge is the __________.

a. Congo                                        

b. Mississippi                                  

c Nile                                                        

d. Amazon


  9. If you were to examine the longitudinal profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is __________.

a. steepest near the mouth                          

b. steepest near the head

c. the same at both the head and mouth       

d. none of these


10.  ____________ makes up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.

a. Dissolved ions and sand                          

b. Dissolved salts

c. Silt and clay-sized, detrital grains              

d. Sand and gravel that move during floods


11.  At a bend in a river, the main erosion is _______.

a. on the outside of the bend                        

b. on the inside of the bend

c. both outside and inside the bend               

d. at an oxbow lake


12.  ___________ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream.

a. Capacity                                    

b. Discharge                                  

c. Competence                               

d. Hydro-load factor


13.  At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ____________.

a. endotributaries                

b. exotributaries                              

c. distributaries                               

d. cotributaries


14.  A natural levee is __________.

a. an erosional feature                                

b. a depositional feature

c. essentially parallel to its stream channel    

d. both b and c


15.  Rejuvenation of a stream may be due to _______.

a. rising of sea level                                    

b. uplift of land

c. a decreased gradient                               

d. thermal expansion


16.  The suspended load of a stream __________.

a. is deposited before the bed load               

b. is highly soluble substances

c. moves along the bottom                           

d. usually consists of fine particles


17.  A ____________ stream pattern is developed only on growing mountains like volcanoes or where the land surface is tectonically doming upward.

a. radial                                                     

      b. dendritic                                     

c. boreal                                        

d. trellis


18.  A ____________ stream pattern develops on lands underlain by tilted or folded, alternating hard and soft, sedimentary strata.

a. dendritic                                     

b. radial                                         

c. trellis                                                      

d. boreal


19. The most common drainage pattern is ________.

a. dendritic                                     

b. radial                                         

c. trellis                                                      

d. boreal


20.  ________ is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.

a. A bulltrail                                   

b. An oxbow                                  

c. A cowhock                                

d. A gatorback


21.  A stream begins at an elevation of 200 meters and flows a distance of 400 kilometers to the ocean. What is the average gradient?

a. 2m/km                                       

b. 2km/m                                       

c. 0.5m/km                                     

d. 0.5 km/in


22.  ____________ are characteristics of downcutting streams and a youthful stage of valley evolution.

a.  Rapids and lots of whitewater                 

b.  Wide floodplains

c.  A U-shaped, cross-valley profiles           

d.  Meandering channels and  natural levees


23.  __________ generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream.

a. Bed load                                    

b. Dissolved load                

c. Suspended load               

d. Saltation load


24.  A ____________ drainage pattern is common in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province.

a. dendritic                                     

b. polygonal                        

c. circular                                      

d. trellis


25.  Which of the following features characterize wide streams and valleys?

a. natural levees; broad floodplains              

b. rapids; channel bed potholes

c. waterfalls; entrenched meanders             

d. V-shaped valley cross-sections


26.  As stream discharge increases __________.

a. velocity, width, and depth increase           

b. only velocity increases

c. velocity, width, and depth decrease          

d. only depth increases


27.  The single most important erosional agent is ___.

a. running water                             

b. wind                                                      

c. wind                                                      

d. waves


28.  Permeable rock strata or sediment that transmit groundwater freely are called __________.

a. perched water tables       

b. aquitards                                    

c. springs                                       

d. aquifers


29.  ____________ would have the largest capacity to naturally remove sewage pollutants.

      a. Fractured granite                                                

      b. Well-sorted, coarse gravel

      c. Slightly clayey sand                                             

      d. Limestone with solution channels and caverns


30.  When water is pumped from a well, a depression is often produced in the water table. Such a depression is a(n) __________.

a. perched water table                                

b. pumping dimple

c. cone of depression                                  

d. artesian well


31.  Which one of the following concerning artesian wells is not true?

      a. the well penetrates an aquifer overlain by an


      b. the well penetrates an aquifer underlain by an

          impermeable bed

      c. the aquifer is generally inclined, and it is

          saturated to an elevation above the point where

          the well penetrates the aquifer

      d. when the well penetrates the aquifer, the water

          rises to the bottom of the aquitard above the



32.  Which of the following is associated with areas of karst topography?

a. sinkholes                                    

b. soluble rock                                

c. caverns                                      

d. all of these


33.  A ____________ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.

      a. stalandite                        

      b. stalactite                        

      c. stalagmite                       

      d. slagdite


34.  ____________ is the volume of voids or open space in a rock or unconsolidated material.

      a. Permeability                   

      b. Space yield                     

      c. Porosity                         

      d. Saturation index


35.  The water table is ____________.

      a. a boundary between unsaturated bedrock and

          an underground river

      b. a boundary between unsaturated bedrock  

          below and saturated bedrock above

      c. an underground mass of partly saturated rock

      d. a boundary between saturated rock below and

          unsaturated rock above


36.  An artesian well is one in which ____________.

      a. the water is warm, fairly saline, and recharged

          by an affluent stream

      b. pressurized groundwater rises from a deep,

          unsaturated aquifer

      c. water rises above the top of the aquifer without

          any pumping

      d. the well is horizontal and the water table is



37.  The term karst topography was first used in ____.

      a. the Republic of Slovenia, a province of the

          former Yugoslavia

      b. eastern Canada in areas of fractured igneous

          and metamorphic rocks

      c. India near the southern foothills of the

          Himalayan Mountains

      d. Australia for the extremely dry interior area

          near Ayres Rock and Alice Springs


38.  Hot springs are most numerous in which region of the United States?

a. southeast                                    

b. Midwest                                     

c. west                                                      

d. northeast


39.  Which of the following best describes how geysers erupt?

      a. water suddenly boils in disconnected voids and

          cracks above the water table, causing the aquifer

          to explosively fragment

      b. water slowly boils in a network of vertical cracks

          above the water table, sending up a plume of

          steam and hot water

      c. water below the water table slowly boils in a

          vertical crack or natural conduit, causing a plume

          of condensed water vapor to rise above the vent

      d. with a slight reduction in pressure, water in a

    saturated, natural conduit suddenly boils, sending  

    a plume of steam and hot water into the air above

    the vent


40.  Caves most commonly form in

a. limestone                                    

b. sandstone                                   

c. quartzite                                     

d. shale




  1. c

  2. d

  3. b

  4. c

  5. c

  6. b

  7. b

  8. d

  9. b

10. c

11. a

12. a

13. c

14. d

15. b

16. d

17. a

18. c

19. a

20. b

21. c

22. a

23. c

24. d

25. a

26. a

27. a

28. d

29. c

30. c

31. d

32. d

33. b

34. c

35. d

36. c

37. a

38. c

39. d

40. a