Multiple Choice

 

 1.  The height, length, and period of a wave depend upon ____________.

      a. the length of time the wind has blown      

      b. the wind speed

      c. the fetch 

      d. all of these

 

  2. Which of the following is correct regarding a wave in the open ocean?

      a. water particles move in an almost circular path

      b. such waves are called waves of oscillation

      c. is not affected

      d. none of these

 

  3. Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of water is __________.

      a. equal to one-half the wavelength 

      b. equal to the wavelength

      c. twice as great as the wavelength 

      d. three times as great as the wavelength

 

  4. When waves reach shallow water, they are often bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This process is termed __________.

      a. oscillation                       

      b. refraction                                               

      c. translation                                              

      d. reflection

 

  5. The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed _________.

      a. tidal current                                

      b. salinity current                

      c. beach drift                                 

      d. longshore current

 

  6. The presence of which one of the following would indicate that the land had been uplifted or that sea level had fallen?

      a. an estuary                                  

      b. a sea stack                                

      c. elevated marine terrace              

      d. a tombolo

 

 7.  Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?

      a. spit                                                        

      b. estuary                                      

      c. tombolo                                     

      d. sea arch

 

  8. Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are ___________.

      a. associated with a submergent coast        

      b. former river valleys that were flooded by a rise in sea level

      c. excellent examples of large estuaries

      d. all of the above

 

  9. The movement of sand parallel to the shore __________.

      a. is created by waves approaching at an oblique angle

      b. may create spits

      c. is achieved by longshore currents

      d. all of the above

 

10. One result of wave refraction is that wave energy is concentrated ___________.

      a. on headlands projecting into the water

      b. in the recessed areas between headlands

      c. in estuaries

      d. none of the above

 

11. The zigzag movement of sand grains along a beach is ___________.

      a. caused by obliquely breaking waves                   

      b. called beach drift

      c. very unusual and seldom occurs              

     d. both a. and b

 

12. A sand bar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean is a __________.

      a. sea stack                                               

      b. tombolo                                     

      c. coastal barrier                

      d. none of these

 

13. A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a __________.

      a. spit                                                        

      b. jetty                                                       

      c. groin                                                      

      d. sea stack

 

14. An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a __________.

      a. spit                                                        

      b. jetty                                                       

      c. groin                                                      

      d. sea stack

 

15. A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a ________.

      a. jetty                                                       

      b. tombolo                                     

      c. breakwater                                

      d. sea stack

 

16. A flat, bench-like surface cut in rock along a coast is a ___________.

      a. sea stack                                               

      b. tombolo                                     

      c. wave-cut platform          

      d. spit

 

17. Fetch is __________.

      a. a method of shoreline erosion control

      b. the distance between the trough of a wave and the still water level

      c. the circular pattern made by water particles when a wave passes

      d. none of these

 

18. Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?

      a. jetty                                                       

      b. groin                                                      

      c. breakwater                    

      d. seawall

 

19. Which of the following is designed to prevent or retard shoreline erosion?

      a. groin                                                      

      b. beach nourishment         

      c. seawall                          

      d. all of these

 

20. Which of the following is a tidal current?

      a. spring tide                                  

      b. flood tide                                               

      c. ebb tide                         

      d. both flood and ebb tide

 

21. The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from ______.

      a. salinity variations                        

      b. Coriolis effect

      c. prevailing winds                         

      d. density differences

 

22. A poleward-moving ocean current is ______.

      a. warm

      b. cold

      c. warm only in the Northern Hemisphere

      d. warm only in the Southern Hemisphere

 

23. Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.

      a. right                                                       

      b. left                                                         

      c. west                                                      

      d. east

 

24. Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion in the Southern Hemisphere.

      a. right                                                       

      b. left                                                         

      c. west                                                      

      d. east

 

25. The daily tidal range is GREATEST during _______ tide.

      a. spring                                        

      b. ebb                                                       

      c. neap                                                      

      d. none of these

 

26. The daily tidal range is LEAST during _______ tide.

      a. spring                                        

      b. ebb                                                       

      c. neap                                                      

      d. none of these

 

27. Fetch refers to ____________.

                a. the beachfront area where rapid erosion is taking place

                b. a large expanse of open water over which the wind blows and generates waves

                c. the rotational movements of water particles beneath a passing, surface wave

                d. ocean currents moving parallel to the beach

 

28. How can crashing, collapsing, storm waves generate explosive forces and stresses on rocky outcrops and manmade structures?

      a. oscillating, refractive waves shake the hard materials into small fragments

      b. pressurized water and compressed air are driven into cracks and fissures

      c. backwash breaks out blocks of rock or concrete and carries them out to deeper water

      d. all of the above

 

29. Erosional retreat of a ____________leads to enlargement and extension of a wave-cut platform in the inland direction.

      a. wave-cut tombolo                                              

      b. wave-cut cliff                 

      c. wave-cut barrier beach  

      d. offshore, wave-cut, breakwater bar

 

30. Large estuaries are more common on a ____________ coastline.

      a. submergent                    

      b. emergent                       

      c. stable                             

      d. retreating

 

31. A ____________ is an isolated remnant of bedrock standing above a wave-cut platform.

      a. sea spit                          

      b. sea rampart                   

      c. sea span                        

      d. sea stack

 

 

Answers:

  1. d

  2. a

  3. a

  4. b

  5. d

  6. c

  7. d

  8. d

  9. d

10. a

11. d

12. d

13. a

14. d

15. b

16. c

17. d

18. c

19. d

20. d

21. c

22. a

23. a

24. b

25. a

26. c

27. b

28. b

29. b

30. a

31. d