Chapter 1 Multiple Choice


  1. Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?

a. a rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks

            b. a mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock, the atoms are randomly bonded without any geometric pattern

c. in a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains

            d. a rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles


  2. Which of the following is not a fundamental particle found in atoms?

a. neutron                                            

b. selectron                                          

c. electron                                            

d. protons


  3. Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of ____________.

a. electrons in the nucleus                                             

b. protons in the nucleus

c. neutrons in the outer nuclear shell                                          

d. electrons in the valence bond level


  4. Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called __________.

a. isotopes

b. ions

c. isochrons

d. periodic elements


  5. Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?

a. the atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons

b. the atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons

c. the atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons

d. the atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons


6. What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?

a. silicate                                             

b. native gold                            

c. diamond                                           

d. muscovite


7. Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?

a. calcite                                              

b. quartz                                              

c. gypsum                                            

d. plagioclase


  8. Which common mineral is composed entirely of silicon and oxygen?

a. calcite                                              

b. diamond                                           

c. olivine                                              

d. quartz


  9. Which of the following minerals is a silicate?

a. hematite                                           

b. feldspar                                            

c. calcite                                              

d. halite


10.  A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weigh 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams respectively. This indicates that ___.

a. gold has a higher density and specific gravity than quartz and olivine

b. gold is 6 to 7 times harder than olivine and quartz

c. gold and olivine are silicates, quartz is elemental silicon

d. olivine and quartz powders are harder than metallic gold


11.  Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure?

a. carbonates                           

b. pyroxenes                            

c. micas                                               

d. feldspars


12.  The ion at the center of a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron is surrounded by ____________.

a. 4 oxygen ions                       

b. 6 oxygen ions                       

c. 4 sodium ions            

d. 6 sodium ions


13.  The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as __________.

a. luster                                                           

b. cleavage                                          

c. streak                                              

d. hardness


14.  All silicate minerals contain which two elements?

a. iron, silicon                           

b. silicon, sodium                      

c. oxygen, carbon                     

d. silicon, oxygen


15. Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions?

a. diamond                                           

b. talc                                                  

c. halite                                                

d. olivine


16. What element is the most abundant in the Earthís crust by weight?

a. carbon                                             

b. chlorine                                            

c. oxygen                                             

d. sodium


17.  The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ________.

a. streak                                              

b. cleavage                                          

c. cracking luster                      

d. crystal form


18. An atomís mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus?

a. 19                                                    

b. 7                                                                  

c. 13                                                    

d. 6


19. Which one of the following is not true for minerals?

a. they have a specific, internal, crystalline structure

b. they can be a liquid, solid, or glass

c. they have a specific, predictable chemical composition

d. they can be identified by characteristic physical properties


20. Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earthís crust?

a. sulfides                                            

b. carbonates                           

c. silicates                                            

d. halides


21. Which the following denotes the positively charged particles in an atomís nucleus?

a. protons                                             

b. electrons                                          

c. isotrons                                            

d. neutrons


22. Which of the following has the highest specific gravity?

a. wood                                                           

b. water                                                           

c. gold                                                 

d. quartz


23. Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?

a. luster                                                           

b. color streak                          

c. virtual absorption                  

d. fluorescence


24. The most unreliable (variable) diagnostic property of minerals such as quartz is __________.

a. hardness                                          

b. crystal form                          

c. specific gravity                     

d. color


25. Which of the following is NOT one of the eight most common elements in Earthís crust?

a. carbon                                             

b. potassium                             

c. aluminum                 

d. calcium


26. Mineral deposits which have been identified and can be extracted profitably are called __________.

a. reserves                                           

b. ores                                                 

c. resources                 

d. tailings



Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.


27. a. electron                           b. atom                         c. proton                       d. neutron


28.  a. quartz                             b. olivine                       c. feldspar                     d. calcite


29.  a. oxygen                            b. sulfur                        c. aluminum                  d. iron



  1. c

  2. b

  3. b

  4. b

  5. c

  6. c

  7. a

  8. d

  9. b

10. a

11. c

12. a

13. d

14. d

15. c

16. c

17. b

18. b

19. b

20. c

21. a

22. c

23. a

24. d

25. a

26. a

27. b

28. d

29. b